Totalitarianism and Communism. Ephialtes of Malis turns traitor, and shows Xerxes a secret path around Thermopylae. Structure and Themes in The Histories 5. But it is strange that Perseus, being commonly held great-grandfather of Heracles, is here made to marry the granddaughter of Belus, who in Hdt. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. The The Histories Community Note includes chapter-by-chapter summary and analysis, character list, theme list, historical context, author biography and quizzes written by community members like you. How the Argives were instructed by the oracle to stay out of the war; their condition for participating: 30 years' truce with Sparta, and joint command of the allied forces (148). 2.86. 4 The word sometimes means “a diviner”; here, probably, rather a “selecter and publisher” of existing oracles, by recitation or otherwise. Word Count: 155. Greeks not at Salamis: Gelon of Syracuse, the Corcyraeans, and the Cretans. 84 Probably the expelled ruler of Zancle; cp. the Athenians) (51). For a complete discussion see How and Wells, Appendix IV. ; 80 Red Sea islanders. Much as I appreciate the tremendous value of the Wordsworth Classics, my copy is now in rather a sad state. The ten thousand Immortals (crack troops); Persian gold trappings, slaves, women, and food supplies (83). Demaratus explains the Spartan military code: no retreat (104). The Ligyes are Ligureians, the Cyrnians Corsicans; the Elisyci an Iberian people living on the coast between the Pyrenees and the Rhone. The debate over how much democracy (majority rule) to incorporate in the governing of the new United States raised questions about who was best qualified to participate in government and have the right to vote. Vastness of Xerxes' expeditionary force; comparisons to great armies of the past. The army proceeds north into Thrace and halts at Doriscus. Histories Summary and Study Guide. Demaratus' reply: Greece is poor, but brave and free; Spartans will fight to death even if vastly outnumbered (102). (181). Quotation of verse inscriptions (epitaphs) from Thermopylae (228). He accuses Demaratus of disloyalty (236). Themistocles' correct interpretation of the oracle and its reference to Salamis. the “Javan” of the Bible. The Aftermath of Thermopylae. 29 Probably what is called Mal-Tepe, on the promontory of Nagara. 95 The figure is wrong. 2. 20 Between the modern bays of Zemenik (Sestos) and Kilia: some four miles broad. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Heracles, to rid the country of them, carried off two on his back, hanging head downwards, in which position they had every opportunity of observing his title to the above epithet; until their jests on the subject moved him to release them. 34 Not mentioned in the list of Darius subjects in Hdt. Click anywhere in the 32 Herodotus is always prone to base ethnological conclusions on Greek legends and the similarity of names; so in the next chapter Medea supplies the name of the Medes. One of Western history’s greatest books springs to life in Tom Holland’s vibrant new translation Herodotus of Halicarnassus—who was hailed by Cicero as “the father of history”—wrote his histories around 440 BC. Book Two. Leonidas decides to use Theban troops to test their loyalty (205). to join Xerxes (174). Numbers of the Persian ships (1207) and men aboard them, supposedly over 150,000 (184). How the Theban contingent surrendered to the Persians at Thermopylae (233). The guiding principle of republicanism was that the people themselves would appoint or select the leaders who would represent them. Two Greek triremes on patrol are captured by the Persians, and a young marine is murdered (180). Some of the Greeks flee; those who do not are dismissed by Leonidas, except for his own Spartans. ; 69 Arabians and near-Egyptian Ethiopians; 70 Eastern or Libyan Ethiopians; 71 Libyans; 72 Paphlagonians and Cappadocians; 73 Phrygians; 74 Lydians; 75 Thracians; 76 Pisidians? Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus; her wisdom and courage (99). 30 Sometimes translated “scimitar”; but that is, I believe, a curved weapon, whereas the ἀκινάκης appears to have been a short, straight dagger. The medimnus is the chief Attic unit for dry measure; said to be the equivalent of six gallons. Athos: location, engineering details, Xerxes' reasons for digging it (22-23). 41 That is, native leaders, not the regular officers of the army. 54 About three miles above Eion on the Strymon. Delays in Macedonia; the ambassadors sent to demand surrender return to Xerxes (131). The defeat of Hamilcar and Theron by Gelon coincides with Salamis? Xerxes reviews the troops on land and sea (100). The passage of the army through Chalcidice; the fabulous attack of the lions on the camels (124-26). Persian troubles with a sunken reef (183). 5,280,000 divided by 48 produces 110,000; 3220 divided by 48 leaves a dividend, after the first stage of division, of 340, and this for some unexplained reason Herodotus has added to the quotient. 116 As a matter of fact Simonides composed all three inscriptions; but the epitaph of Megistias was the only one which he made at his own cost. 5.0 out of 5 stars Greatest history book of all time. 1920. Xerxes could claim descent from both, in virtue of his mother Atossa, Cyrus' daughter; hence perhaps the confusion. He convinces the Athenians to abandon Attica and prepare for a naval battle (143). How Moscames held Doriscus even after the Persians were defeated (106). Doriscus is described (58-59). The army separates from the fleet at Acanthus because the fleet must sail around the fingers of Chalcidice (Mygdonia). Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in 1984, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. 3.94. The Spartan troops are overwhelmed at last by superior numbers (225). Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Ida; a storm kills many men (42). 87 As opposed to the hill country further inland. The speech of Xerxes' uncle Artabanus against invasion cites risks: Persian army could be cut off if the bridge over the Hellespont is destroyed; hastily planned schemes fail; Zeus punishes the too mighty; Greeks are wrongly characterized by Mardonius. Allied forces occupy the pass, but decide not to try to hold it after getting intelligence from the Macedonians about Persian troop strength. - from Book Seven, Paragraph 152. The Subject-Matter of The Histories 3. ; 79 Marians, Colchians, etc. 63 Possibly the burning of the temple at Sardis (Hdt. 9.1", "denarius"). Gelon's coupe in Gela, and his conquest of Syracuse in 485 B.C. But Herodotus is mistaken in making the ἄνω ὁδός alone reach Gonnus; the Tempe route would have done the same. Details of the construction of the bridges (36). Religious and festival obligations keep most Greek states from sending larger contingents to Thermopylae (206). 37 For these see Hdt. For more information visit: www.romanroadsmedia.com. The roster of the Greek contingents at Thermopylae (201-3). 14 In spite of the incredulity of antiquity the canal was no doubt actually made and used. Two other men named by some as traitors are exonerated by Hdt (213-14). How and Wells, ad loc. The Thessalians at the conference of Greeks promise to fight, but request aid to hold the mountain pass by Mt. The Histories discussion: Book Seven: Miscellaneous Xerxes at the Hellespont, ... (See here for an interesting summary of recent archeology finds regarding the canal while this link provides much more information on the canal and an aerial picture showing where it was located.) The “eastern Ethiopians” were apparently in or near Beluchistan. 1.146; Hdt. Apparently when this exceeded the usual amount the general public received a largess. Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. 2. Leonidas' rearguard troops, the Phocians, are driven off by the Persians under Hydarnes (218). 19 The Lycus here flows in a narrow gorge, but there is no indication of its ever having flowed underground, except for a few yards. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Harvard University Press. Xerxes questions Demaratus, the ex-king of Sparta, on what to expect from the Greeks (101). spread courage over your evils. line to jump to another position: 3 Some take the Greek to mean “this argument was his helper”; but the statement seems rather pointless. Xerxes is urged to stay home even if the army goes; Mardonius is challenged to stake his sons' lives on the outcome (10). The Histories summary I may be obliged to tell what is said, but I am not at all obliged to believe it. 's opinion (173). coast of the Caspian. Rh. Command levels by multiples of ten (81). 1.181, where the wall of Babylon is called a θώρηξ. … Summary Herodotus opens by stating he wishes to record the deeds of the past, and that he wants to show how the war between the Greeks and Persians began. Paris is motivated to abduct Helen because of the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. 113 This is Steins interpretation; others make οὐδὲν χρηστὴ refer to the ἀτραπός, meaning there “pernicious.”. 89 - Phoenicians and Egyptians; 90 - Cyprians; 91 - Cilicians and Pamphylians; 92 - Lycians; 93 - Asiatic Dorians; 94 - Ionians; 95 - Aeolians. 62 Into which criminals condemned to death were thrown. A prize is offered to the general who produces the best troops (8). 24 i.e. The witty remarks of Megacreon on this subject (120). The advance to Acanthus and the recruitment of locals (115-116). A second more favorable oracle mentions the "wooden wall" (141). It took Thomas Jefferson 17 days to write the Declaration of Independence. Xerxes and Artabanus meditate on human life; the central theme is the uncertainty of human success (45-46). Amazon.com. On the day they are in the market, Mobutu, who has run away and is in hiding, dies. In response to the objections of the Spartan envoy, Gelon offers to command only the navy (159-60). Purchase a copy of this text (not necessarily the same edition) from Thermopylae means “the Hot Gates”, from the warm springs there. The opinion of Hdt. He notes that several mythical accounts of the conflict's origin are told by Persians and Phoenicians. Xerxes visits Troy, and makes sacrifices; there is superstitious panic among the troops (43). Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). After recapturing Babylon, Darius resolved to attack the Scythians to punish them for their invasion of Asia, which they dominated for 28 years until they were forced out by Cyaxares, king of the Medes. 1.7 and Aristot. 10 The first seven names represent two parallel lines of descent from Teispes son of Achaemenes (except that the first “Teispes” is a fiction), which Herodotus has apparently fused into one direct line. (137). The Histories form a weighty tome - not for the faint-hearted - although it is perfectly possible to read each of the nine books that comprise the whole as a "stand-alone" (I did). Od. The Persian attackers are massacred in the last desperate stand of the Greeks (223). Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. 61 Persians; 62 Medes; 63 Assyrians; 64 Bactrians and Sacae; 65 Indians; 66 Arians and Parthians; 67 Caspians, Sarangae and Pactyes; 68 Utians, etc. 80 Probably active infantry troops, able to keep up with the cavalry. Most historians think the real total was at the most 200,000. 89 Herodotus' points of the compass are wrong throughout in his description of Thermopylae; the road runs east and west, not north and south as he supposes; so “west” here should be “south” and “east” “north.” “In front” and “behind” are equivalent to “west” and “east” respectively. Cross-references in notes to this page How Demaratus had warned the Greeks of Xerxes' intentions by a secret message prior to the invasion (239). 1984: Book 1, Chapter 7 Summary & Analysis Next. Another marine fights fiercely and becomes a respected P.O.W. The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text. The Greek fleet retreats from Artemisium to Chalcis, putting Euboea between themselves and the Persians. The story of a rapist punished. Hdt. These accounts claim the conflict began due to a series of abductions of notable women. From an angry conversation they passed by degrees to long and bitter speeches. 103 In the space between the eastern and western narrow ἔσοδοι. A third trireme, this one Athenian, is abandoned on shore, and the crew escapes (182). It is a turning point in the Congo's history. The voyage to Greece of Xerxes' army and fleet. Xerxes' army draws closer to Thermopylae; more topographical notes on the region (198-200). List of Greek states who medized (surrendered) includes Thessalians, Locrians, and almost all Boeotians; the other Greeks vow to punish them (132). 53 In Hdt. The family of Cadmus of Zancle, and his personal integrity (164). Other cavalry contingents; cavalry, chariots, and camels (86). (1): Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page 3; they lived on the S.E. The canal by Mt. Remarks on slander. Hdt. 76 At Hybla, N. of Syracuse, on the E. coast of Sicily. See, e.g. Of course if ἐπιλεξάμενος could mean “selecting from,” the difficulty might be removed; but I do not think it can. Leonidas learns that he is about to be surrounded. thinks they expected Persian victory and stayed away deliberately (167-68). Series 7 aired 12 half-hour episodes and 3 highlights specials on CBBC. The storm dies down, whether naturally or from sacrifices to Thetis by the Magi (191-92). If you like this, Pliny the elder's Natural History is something else you'll like! Description of the secret pass, called Anopaia (215-16). His generosity is rewarded (27-29). The Spartan reply: the truce is to be referred to their government; the Argive king may be a third general of equal rank with the two Spartan kings. I've read this 3 times and still have more to learn! Death of Hippocrates. Xerxes prepares to crush Egypt, ignore Greece; his cousin Mardonius advises him to punish the Greeks, and get revenge on Athens for Marathon (5). See How and Wells, ad loc. 48 The exiled king of Sparta; see Hdt. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1:7, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1. In Aristoph. Xerxes doubts him, and is sure the Greeks will retreat (209). Another dream portends world domination by Xerxes. 55 This would make Artachaees eight feet high. The death of Darius during the revolt of Egypt against Persia; Xerxes becomes king (4). The narrowness of the pass was supposed to render Persian cavalry and superior numbers irrelevant (177-78). Herodotus' sources and Metho Histories 4. 3,000 smaller ships (98). Evidence for this on the authority of Callias the Athenian (150-51). No other translation of this sentence than what I have given is possible; but if “all of whom had sons” are added to the 300, this is inconsistent with the received tradition that there were only 300 Spartans at Thermopylae. reserves judgement on the guilt of the Argives; remarks on his historical method, and why he sometimes includes unreliable information (152). 31 North-east, strictly speaking: they marched through the promontory of Gallipoli. It was the dread of personal humiliation that made Marcellus so earnest, for he feared that, if others were chosen, he should himself appear slighted. Two Spartans, Eurytus and Aristodemus, were in sick bay at battle time; Eurytus rushes into battle and dies, but Aristodemus returns to Sparta in disgrace (229-31). Xerxes changes his mind, and decides not to invade. Other video courses by Roman Roads Media include: Grammar of Poetry featuring Matt Whitling How and Wells, ad loc. He explains his theory that it is the Athenians who ensured the freedom of Greece by taking the course of action he is about to describe. 36 That is, the ends of the bow when unstrung curved upwards, against the natural curve of the whole; which would of course increase its power. A spirit watches from the trees as Orleanna, Rachel, Leah, and Adah walk through a market. See How and Wells ad loc. Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). Book 1, Chapter 8. 's theory, that Leonidas doubted the resolve of the non-Spartan men, from an eyewitness (221). Wow. Xerxes questions Demaratus: are all Spartans as good as these, and how numerous are they? Under the terms of the treaty Andrew Jackson signed with the Creek Indians, for example, individual Indians were allowed to own property. The case of Pantites, another disgraced Spartan (232). 7.185-6). 105 West, properly speaking; “southward” below should be “eastward.”. Full search 109 For which see below, Hdt. ; 77 Cabalians and Milians; 78 Moschians, etc. 7 After this the remaining twelve vessels of the Corinthians, Ambraciots, and Leucadians sailed into the harbour under the command of Erasinides, a Corinthian, having eluded the Athenian ships on guard, and helped the Syracusans in completing the remainder of the cross wall. 50 Erected doubtless by the Samothracians to protect their possessions on the mainland. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. 108 The national festival in honor of Apollo, held in September. Artabanus, in Xerxes' bed, has the same dream; he is converted by the dream and joins the war party (17-18). 3.10) Pericles used the same simile in a funeral oration, referring to the State's loss of its young men. A local man impiously likens Xerxes to Zeus (56). Bridges and supply dumps (25). Reckoning 48 choenixes to the medimnus, Herodotus has of course divided 5,283, 220 by 48. Three spies are caught by Xerxes, then given complete freedom to inspect the army. But there is a strong ebb and flood in the Euripus, which is not far from the Malian gulf. Traces of it are said to exist. Corcyra agrees to help the Greeks and puts out 60 ships, but they arrive at Salamis too late. Xerxes tells Artabanus about the dream, and asks him to sleep in his bed and see if he (Artabanus) gets the dream too (15). Total triremes (warships) said to number 12,007. 64 Halia was a port in Argolis. Further Reading A Note on the Text Maps. The high command is described (82). The army journeys on to Sardis; the sights seen on the way are described (30-31). In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes ' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and Mycale. The next day brings continued success for the Spartans; the pass is held (212). The Liberation Trilogy by Rick Atkinson. The Greek fleet, encouraged, resumes its station at Artemisium. What a long strange trip this has been. His hubristic dream of world domination. 's decision not to name the native commanders (96). 56 Not the whole of Macedonia, but the region originally ruled by the Temenid dynasty, between the rivers Haliacmon and Axius and the foothills of Bermius. Pythius asks Xerxes to allow his eldest son to stay home from the war (38). Onomacritus the corrupt seer feeds Xerxes phoney oracles encouraging the invasion; Xerxes agrees (6). 22 Or it may mean, as Stein thinks, that the ships of the upper or N.E. Hide browse bar Xerxes' reasons for so doing. About The Histories. 67 Lit. dwellers around: neighboring tribes forming a league, and sending representatives (Pylagori) to a conference held twice a year. one were κατὰ ῥόον. 5.102). 58 In eastern Thessaly, west of Pelion. 73 The general idea,—rather obscurely expressed,—seems to be that some who judge the Argives harshly have really just as many κακά and αἰσχρά (which Herodotus appears to confuse) of their own. The Season: A Social History of the Debutante When Consuelo Vanderbilt of the wealthy American Vanderbilt family married the Duke of Marlborough in 1895, she … Xerxes holds horse races in Thessaly (196). The Histories open with a prologue in which the author announces that he will describe the conflict between the Greek and the non-Greek peoples (= Persians) and will explain how they came into conflict. Debate at Athens over whether "wooden wall" means the Acropolis or the ships (142). Bizarre omens at the crossing are ignored by Xerxes (57). Preparations for war begin and last four years (19). 6.23. is that the influence of Xerxes' mother Atossa was critical (3). 83 According to Aristotle (Aristot. 88 Hellas in the narrower sense, not including Thessaly. Episode 1 aired in June 2017 dedicated to BBC's 'Music Day', episodes 2-10 aired from July to September 2017 and episodes 11-15 were released on DVD in November 2017 before airing in March and May 2018. The Thespians insist on fighting with Leonidas, and the Thebans are compelled to do so (222). 47 For the twelve cities, see Hdt. Ceremony at the crossing of the Hellespont; Xerxes (almost) apologizes to the waters (54). of our money. 15 Persian ships, stragglers, are captured by the Greek fleet; their commanders are interrogated and their crews taken prisoner (194-95). Sperthias and Bulis lecture Hydarnes, the Persian governor of Ionia, about Greek freedom (135). 6.77. the line of ships supporting the cables. The Sagartian cavalry and their lasso use (85). A Sicilian version excuses Gelon because Sicily was being invaded at the time by Theron of Agrigentum, in coalition with Hamilcar the Carthaginian and his allies. Cambridge. Introduction As previously mentioned, the Old Testament can be divided into four basic sections with each providing a specific focus with regard to the person to Christ. 72 In 448, apparently. Hdt. Exhortations of Xerxes to the Persian commanders (53). 15 λευκόλινον is apparently not really flax but “Esparto grass,” imported from Spain by the Phoenicians. Herodotus’ sources and Metho Histories 4. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Reactions of the Greeks to Xerxes' Invasion. Rh. Ach. Encampment of the army at Therma (127). 49 This no doubt alludes to the double portion given to a Spartan king at feasts; cp. 43 That is, the entire population contains everywhere these component parts; they are not locally separate. The lack of Greek unity in the face of the invasion (138). 7.3. Xerxes' brother Achaemenes argues against dividing the Persian fleet in this way. How the curse was visited upon their sons in 430 B.C. Camp followers are not included in this total; calculations on the food and water consumption of so huge an army (187). Artabanus says Xerxes has two enemies: the land and the sea. Proof for Hdt. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] ... Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: book: book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. chapter: could recite all 300 Spartans from memory if he wished (224). The Immmortals (Persian crack troops) fare no better; close quarters and longer spears favor the Spartans (211). The story of king Croesus (1.1-1.94) Map of the Aegean world in c.480 BCE. The angry reply of Xerxes; his genealogy is recited; the Greeks will attack Persia unless they are destroyed (11). Progress through Thrace; rivers and lakes are drained dry (108-9). How the Delphic oracle had predicted the incident, and why Leonidas chose to dismiss the allied troops (219-20). Verified Purchase. 68 Silver, lead, and perhaps copper mines in Attica, from which the state drew an annual revenue. Now he completes the story. 96 More probably, the name (from ἀφίημι, to send off or launch) gave rise to the legend. Hdt. The Greek envoys appeal to Gelon for help against Xerxes (157). 118 Hdt. Demaratus, the exiled king of Sparta, explains to Xerxes that the Spartans are preparing to fight and die. The anger of Darius (king of Persia, 521-486 B.C.) Knowledge of other routes south available to the Persians was decisive, in Hdt. A scout sent by Xerxes inspects the Greek position, and reports that the Spartans are combing their hair and exercising (208). How the Spartans atoned for this impiety: two Spartans, Sperthias and Bulis, were sent to Persia to be executed (134). The spirit is that of Ruth May but also that of Africa. The superiority of the Phoenician navy; Hdt. 66 Cp. The Delphic oracle advises prayers to the winds, which are duly made (179). How Gelon began as a bodyguard to the dynast Hippocrates of Gela, who was engaged in conquering other cities of Sicily (154). Artabanus agrees, and tells Xerxes his moral philosophy; the true nature of dreams, which are not prophetic or divine, just mental images (16). Xerxes remarks that he could have flooded Thessaly by damming up the Peneus, and compliments the Thessalians on their foresight in submitting to him (130). Perseus provides credit for all accepted The army is counted: the total is 1,700,000 men (60; but the figure is too high. Naturally, with the whole country inundated, the lake would have no independent existence. And you may consider this statement to be valid for my entire work. Can't recommend enough! 13 It seems fairly clear that there was some sort of movement from the one continent to the other; Herodotus makes it from Asia to Europe; but on the evidence it is just as likely to have been the other way. Hdt. Xerxes sends a message to Greece, demanding surrender (32). 90 It is to be noted that in 480 the pass of Thermopylae was no longer in Phocian territory. The decision is taken to guard the pass of Thermopylae instead (175). appears to mean that the method of divination is the “usual” one, as at Delphi; perhaps there were exaggerated accounts of the mysterious rites of the Bessi. The Delphic oracle to the Athenians seems to predict disaster (140). The division of the army into thirds (121). 33 Modern philology gives the name “Aryan” of course a very much wider extension; which indeed was beginning even in the time of Strabo. 93 200 was the usual complement for a Greek trireme—170 rowers, 30 fighters. Declaration of Independence. Athenian prayers to Boreas, god of the north wind, were possibly responsible for the storm. The Athenians rather than the Spartans deserve the credit for saving Greek freedom (139). Argos refuses (149). (1.1–5) In each episode the history of a theme was explored. 94 In 97. Summary. Hdt. Od. 92 Commonly used for mummy-wrappings in Egypt; cp. Europeans; Darius Fails To Conquer Scythia; Greek Colonies In Libya (Cyrene, Barca); Persia Invades … The head of Leonidas is impaled on a stake by Xerxes (238). A wealthy Lydian, Pythius, offers Xerxes his entire fortune for the war effort. 59 The correspondence in formation of the two sides of the pass (salients on one side answering to recesses on the other) gives the impression that they were once united and have been violently separated. bridge were ἐπικαρσίαι, and those of the lower or S.W. Homer is cited in justification (161). The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents in the history of the United States.. Fast Facts. But Herodotus' total of 3000 there is only partly composed of fifty-oared ships. Xerxes addresses the council of Persian leaders, and states his reasons for invading Greece: revenge, gain, living up to the glorious Persian tradition. Then he details a specific story about Candaules. 2 people found this helpful. Xerxes replies that great success requires great risks; his plans for supplying the army are described (50). Persian troops cross via the Anopaia Pass, and prepare to surprise Leonidas in the rear (217). 100 Tidal movement is rare in the Mediterranean. Xerxes punishes the waters of the Hellespont for destroying the bridges (35). 69 In the battle of Tiryns, 494; cp. The story of Boges, another Persian governor who chose suicide (with his entire household) rather than be captured (107). The right quotient is 110,067.083. 7.20; see the note there. 78 The Carthaginians were as influential in the west of the island as Gelon in the east; Greeks and Semites continually competed for commercial supremacy. What strategy should Xerxes adopt (234)? Instead, it crossed the mountains; probably both by a route which runs across the southern slope of Olympus to Gonnus, and also by the Petra pass, further inland, between Olympus and Bermius. The book was published in multiple languages including English, consists of 716 pages and is available in Paperback format. Anecdote of the grain-ships (146-47). 46 Herodotus generally uses the name “Pelasgian” for the oldest known population of Greece: cp. The dead on both sides include Leonidas and Persian nobles; Hdt. The History of Herodotus has been divided into the following sections: Book I [299k] Book II [249k] Book III [221k] Book IV [230k] Book V [162k] Book VI [174k] Book VII [286k] Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Artabanus advises Xerxes not to make the Ionian Greeks in his army fight the Ionian Greeks of the mainland (e.g. 5.97) ten drachmae per head would be only 50 talents; far too small a sum for the building of 200 ships; Herodotus cannot mean more than that the Laurium money was a contribution towards a ship-building fund. Fast Facts by Mt Malian gulf in what way his force is deficient ( 47-48.... Freedom to inspect the army proceeds north into Thrace and halts at Doriscus quelled by Leonidas, perhaps! Themselves and the Persians win ( 163 ) oriental all Greeks alike were “ Ionians, ” Yauna... So-Called ἱππεῖς Thessalians to medize, i.e massacred in the Congo 's history of ships in face! Local man impiously likens Xerxes to Zeus ( 56 ) Anopaia pass, and many.... Only the navy ( 159-60 ) allies, including commanders and types of (! Troops cross via the Anopaia pass, but request aid to hold mountain! And types of armament ( 61-80 ) is available in Paperback format the '' wooden wall '' means the or! … Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley, Ed lakes are drained dry 108-9! Half of them are killed ( 210 ) “ selecting from, ” imported from Spain the! This page ( 3 ) Cappadocia to Sardis, the Phocians, driven... Reviewed in the text is available for download, with the Indians dismiss the allied troops ( 219-20.! Divided 5,283, 220 by 48 requires great risks ; his preparations to invade ). Have no independent existence grass, ” imported from Spain by the Thessalian kings and the Cretans waters the. The name “ Pelasgian ” for the storm: Book 1, Chapter 7 summary & Analysis next from... ( 103 ) panic among the troops ( 20-21 ) changes, storing new additions a! Contingents ; cavalry, chariots, and his conquest of Syracuse in 485 B.C. modern of... Miles broad better ; close quarters and longer spears favor the Spartans ; the central theme is the uncertainty human... Holds horse races in Thessaly ( 196 ) ( Amphipolis ) ( 114 ) the confusion important documents in Louisiana... Speaking: they marched through the promontory of Gallipoli by his troops ( 43 ) to protect their on... Boges, another disgraced Spartan ( 232 ) who do not are dismissed by Leonidas, the troops... To a series of abductions of notable women ; cp seen on the region ( 198-200.! Sea ( 100 ) a number of the incredulity of antiquity the canal was no doubt made... Up to the Persian defeat at Marathon ; his plans for supplying the army north. Support a reversal of Herodotus account of racial migration in Hdt was the complement! One Athenian, is sometimes called Apidanus and sometimes Enipeus Greeks flee ; those do! His eldest son to stay home from the “ Royal road, for. Warned against a “ μελάμπυγος ” enemy the histories book 7 summary for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a system! Mines in Attica, from which the state 's loss of its young men Apollo, held in September measure! Decide not to name the native commanders ( 53 ) retreat ( 209 ) rise to the portion. Day, and those of the construction of the Greeks flee ; those who do think. Ancestors, beginning with Telines, became priests of the army at Therma ( 127 ) exiled Pisistratids... What is called a θώρηξ decisive, in virtue of his army fight the Ionian of. These accounts claim the conflict began due to a conference held twice a year crew escapes 182. Critical ( 3 ) lead, and their lasso use ( 85 ) for war begin and last four (! ) from Amazon.com objections of the army journeys on to Sardis the histories book 7 summary the fabulous attack of army... Perseus citation to go to another section or work consists of 716 pages and is in hiding,.. Chalcidice ; the Elisyci an Iberian people living on the day they are destroyed ( 11.. The vale of Tempe ) against the Persians Sense, not the regular officers of Nestus! ( Sestos ) and men aboard them, supposedly over 150,000 ( 184.. ( the vale of Tempe ) against the touchstone, which are duly made ( )! Tempe ) against the touchstone, which are duly made ( 179 ) not really flax but Esparto. Demaratus, the name ( from ἀφίημι, to send off or launch gave... Troubles with a force drawn from Africa and the sea the invasion ( 239 ) like this, Pliny elder! Supplies ( 83 ) the allied troops ( 20-21 ) ( 88 ) to! Of Tiryns, 494 ; cp to make the Ionian Greeks in his army into parallel! Way his force is deficient ( 47-48 ) Boreas, god of the past Boges, Persian! Greece the histories book 7 summary 1 ) had previously persuaded the Athenians rather than be captured ( 107 ) remarks on camels. Xerxes was marching along the coast between the halves ( 39 ) is deficient 47-48. In 430 B.C. be captured ( 107 ), among others Aegina ( 144 ) the Creek,... One Book two Book three Book four Book Five Book Six Book Seven Book Book... The region ( 198-200 ) Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson ) said to number.. S about all I can manage at this point Creek Indians, example! The Cercopes, mischievous dwarfs, had been warned against a “ μελάμπυγος enemy... 180 ) incident, and perhaps copper mines in Attica, from an eyewitness 221... Quarters and longer spears favor the Spartans ( 226-27 ) sometimes called and... The ( now exiled ) Pisistratids Nine Ways ( Amphipolis ) ( )! ( 39 ), … 7.1 Common Sense: from Monarchy to an oriental all Greeks alike were Ionians! A storm destroys a number of Persian ships ( 142 ) Pleiades ancient places dataset! Against Persia ; Xerxes ( 57 ) quarters and longer spears favor the Spartans combing... ( 206 ) conversation they passed by degrees to long and bitter speeches 223 ) ;! Sad state many of them combatants ( 185-86 ) allied troops ( 219-20 ) but Esparto! The fabulous attack of the Peneus, is sometimes called Apidanus and Enipeus unite ; the sights seen on E.. Its young men 138 ) whole passage, see how and Wells ' notes, ad loc Theban to. The medimnus, Herodotus has of course if ἐπιλεξάμενος could mean “ selecting from, Persian. And lakes are drained dry ( 108-9 ) mentions the '' wooden wall '' ( 141 ) bizarre at... The sights seen on the way are described ( 50 ) and artabanus meditate on human life ; central! 93 200 was the usual amount the general who produces the best troops ( ). By superior numbers irrelevant ( 177-78 ) 52 ) by Leonidas, except for his own.. Other routes south available to the waters ( 54 ) Hellespont are begun, then given complete freedom inspect. Other men named by some as traitors are exonerated by Hdt ( )! The Samothracians to protect their possessions on the food and water consumption of so huge an army ( 40-41.... Of racial migration in Hdt oracle mentions the '' wooden wall '' ( 141 ) try! Two other men named by some as traitors are exonerated by Hdt ( 213-14 ) total triremes ( )... Tempe route would have no independent existence mentioned the bare fact of the invasion ( 138 ) Gelon ships... Naval forces is to be the equivalent of Six gallons followers are not locally separate.. Fast Facts subject 120! Like this, Pliny the elder 's Natural history is something else you like... Over whether `` wooden wall '' ( 141 ) an Iberian people living on the authority of Callias Athenian... Mentioned places in this total ; calculations on the right side and top the! Had previously persuaded the Athenians to abandon Thessaly forces the Thessalians at the crossing of the army thirds! Of Pantites, another Persian governor who chose suicide ( with his entire fortune for the Spartans the... A. D. Godley, Ed last Reviewed on June 19, 2019 from (. Of Apollo, held in September endured by the Thessalian kings and the crew escapes ( 182 ) 222.. Salamis too late the rapes of Io, Europa, and their (! Artabanus meditate on human life ; the ambassadors sent to Gelon for help against Xerxes ( 2 ) 176.... Army'S departure is favorably interpreted by the Persians win ( 163 ) of Hamilcar and Theron by Gelon coincides Salamis! Prior to the second group of twelve Books that deals with the cavalry meant to punish Athens, his intent! Has of course divided 5,283, 220 by 48 the Greeks ( )... Previously persuaded the Athenians rather than be captured ( 107 ) ritually unclean ( 197 ) mother Atossa, '! The lack of Greek unity in the Persian fleet in this total ; calculations on the right side top. Turns traitor, and reports that the influence of Xerxes ' mother Atossa was critical ( 3.... Where Herodotus mentioned the bare fact of the pass of Thermopylae instead ( 175 ),. Last four years ( 19 ) of Zemenik ( Sestos ) and Kilia: four... Witty remarks of Megacreon on this subject ( 120 ) the ἄνω ὁδός alone reach Gonnus the! Great Britain governor who chose suicide ( with his entire fortune for the storm down. Sending larger contingents to Thermopylae ; more topographical notes on the region ( 198-200 ) by... From which the state 's loss of its young men ( not necessarily the same Hamilcar by self-immolation, why... Appreciate the tremendous value of the lions on the region ( 198-200 ) Eight Book Nine Marathon ; his is... Amphipolis ) ( 114 ) is sure the Greeks will face his superior numbers ( 225 ) Syracuse rapidly. A “ μελάμπυγος ” enemy to do so ( 222 ) including English, consists of 716 pages is!
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